Animal Models for Meibomian Glands

Here is a full list of published meibomian gland models for Meibomian Gland Disease. The problem is imaging these animal’s glands to see if stem cell injection into the glands would repair the process. Looking into ways to do this, but without being able to do a lipiview or lipiscan on mice, it defeats the issue of proving meibomian glands can regenerate with stem cell injections.

Table 1

Animal models showing abnormal meibomian glands
Model Description Animal MGD features Other defectsa
Pikus et al. [13] Modulation of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) K14-Noggin transgenic mouse Abnormal meibomian glands Abnormal sweat glands, ectopic cilia, distal limb agenesis, hyperpigmentation of claws, interdigital webbing, reduced foot pads
Cascallana et al. [14] Overexpression of glucocorticoid receptor K5-GR mice Lack meibomian glands Underdeveloped sweat glands, preputial glands; abnormal hair follicles, teeth, and palate
Chang et al. [15] Elevation of EDAR signalling Transgenic mice Enlarged meibomian glands Excessively branched mammary and salivary glands
Kuramoto et al. [6] EDARadd gene missense mutation Sparse-and-wavy (swh) rat Defective meibomian glands Defects in the sweat, mammary, preputial, and tongue glands
Cui et al. [16] and Wang et al. [17] Mutation of X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) gene “Tabby” mice Lack meibomian glands, reduced tear break up times, blepharitis Corneal neovascularization, ulceration, keratinization, reduced corneal epithelial microvilli, conjunctivitisb
Lin et al. [18] Mice lacking fatty acid transport protein (FATP)4 Tg (IVL-Fatp4) transgenicmice Under developed meibomian glands with thickened ducts Abnormal sebaceous glands, thick skin with defective barrier
McMahon et al. [19] Mutation in ELOVL4 (enzyme for synthesis of extremely long chain fatty acid) heterozygous Stgd3 mice, mixed 129SvEv and C57BL6 Protruding meibomian gland orifice, intragland anatomical changes, tooth paste like meibum, intense staining for ELOVL4 in glands Inability to open eyes fully, increased blink rates
Ikeda et al. [7] Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 knock out Mice with F1 background Age related meibomian gland abnormalities (reduced glandular oil-red O staining) Corneal fluorescein and lissamine staining, reduced tear secretion (phenol red thread readings)
Gilbard 1989 [9] Cautery of meibomian gland orifice Rabbits Increased tear film osmolarity, decrease in conjunctival goblet cells and corneal epithelial glycogen levels Nil
Nichols et al. [8] Cautery of meibomian gland orifice Mice Meibomian gland ductal engorgement and cyst formation, gland dropout, cheesy glandular inclusions Nil
Miyake et al. [10] Lipid limiting diet HR-1/HR-AD hairless mice Plugged meibomian gland orifice
Hyperkeratinisation of meibomian duct epithelium; loss of acini and gland atrophy
Atopic dermatitis [20]
Reyes et al. [11] Immunisation with ovalbumin and pertussis, then topical challenge C57B6 mice Plugged meibomian gland orifice, presence of neutrophils around meibomian glands Nil reported
aGenetic models refer to homozygous mice
bNot in mice expressing the EDA-A1 isoform transgene
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