References for Pterygium


Tong L, Lan W, Lim RR, Chaurasia SS.

Ocul Surf. 2014 Jan;12(1):23-31


(Med Hypotheses. 2013 Nov;81(5):927-30. doi:
10.1016/j.mehy.2013.08.017. Epub 2013 Aug 31.
is the precursor to pterygium.
Tong L1, Lan W, Sim HS, Hou A.

Cost of pterygium:

Wlodarczyk J, Whyte P, Cockrum P, Taylor H.
Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2001 Dec;29(6):370-5.
Pterygium can cause chronic conjunctival hyperemia, corneal astigmatism, corneal dellen, and impairment of vision.1,2, 0
Hu Q, Qiao Y, Nie X, Cheng X, Ma Y.
Cornea. 2014 Feb;33(2):154-60
1. Manning CA, Kloess PM, Diaz MD, et al.. Intraoperative mitomycin in primary pterygium excision. A prospective, randomized trial. Ophthalmology. 1997;104:844–848. Find Full Text Bibliographic Links [Context Link]

2. Detorakis ET, Spandidos DA. Pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment options for ophthalmic pterygium: trends and perspectives (review). Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:439–447.

Risk factors for Pterygium:

Liu L, Wu J, Geng J, Yuan Z, Huang D.
BMJ Open. 2013 Nov 19;3(11)

Associated with Pterygium:
Meibomian Gland Disease, Dry Eye

Viso E, Gude F, Rodríguez-Ares MT.
Cornea. 2011 Jan;30(1):1-6.


p53 Tumor supressor Gene
4. Tsai YY, Cheng YW, Lee H, et al.. P53 gene mutation spectrum and the relationship between gene mutation and protein levels in pterygium. Mol Vis. 2005;11:50–55. Find Full Text Bibliographic Links [Context Link]

5. Lan W, Petznick A, Heryati S, et al.. Nuclear factor-[kappa]B: central regulator in ocular surface inflammation and diseases. Ocul Surf. 2012;10:137–148. Find Full Text Bibliographic Links [Context Link]

6. Park CY, Choi JS, Lee SJ, et al.. Cyclooxygenase-2-expressing macrophages in human pterygium co-express vascular endothelial growth factor. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3468–3480. Find Full Text Bibliographic Links [Context Link]

7. Torres J, Enríquez-de-Salamanca A, Fernández I, et al.. Activation of MAPK signaling pathway and NF-kappaB activation in pterygium and ipsilateral pterygium-free conjunctival specimens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5842–5852. 
Di Girolamo N. Association of human papilloma virus with pterygia and ocular-surface squamous neoplasia. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:202–211.

UV radiation: 1
    • 1
    • T.J. Threlfall, D.R. English
    • Sun exposure and pterygium of the eye: a dose-response curve
    • Am J Ophthalmol, 128 (1999), pp. 280–287
    • 1. Moran DJ, Hollows FC. Pterygium and ultraviolet radiation: a positive correlation. Br J Ophthalmol. 1984;68:343–346. Find Full Text Bibliographic Links [Context Link]

      2. Chao SC, Hu DN, Yang PY, et al.. Ultraviolet-A irradiation upregulated urokinase-type plasminogen activator in pterygium fibroblasts through ERK and JNK pathways. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:999–1007.
  1. AGE: 2
    • 2
    • T.Y. Wong, P.J. Foster, G.J. Johnson et al.
    • The prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in an adult Chinese population in Singapore: the Tanjong Pagar survey
    • Am J Ophthalmol, 131 (2001), pp. 176–183
  2. MALE SEX: 2-3
  3. 2 &
    • 3
    • S.M. Saw, K. Banerjee, D. Tan
    • Risk factors for the development of pterygium in Singapore: a hospital-based case-control study
    • Acta Ophthalmol Scand, 78 (2000), pp. 216–220
    •  | 

  4. DRY EYE: 4

infiltration of lymphocytes,5678 and 9 especially CD4+ T lymphocytes in both epithelial and stromal layers,567 and 8 as well as CD68+ macrophages in the stromal layer.5 and 9 

    • 5
    • S. Tsironi, E. Ioachim, M. Machera et al.
    • Immunohistochemical HLA-DR antigen expression with lymphocyte subsets and proliferative activity in pterygium
    • In Vivo, 16 (2002), pp. 299–306
    •  | 

  1. ——————-


  3. YOUNGER AGE: 13
    • 21
    • C. Mpyet, H. Oko
    • Results of intra-operative 0.5mg/ml mitomycin C with 20mg depo steroid in the treatment of primary pterygium
    • Cent Afr J Med, 46 (2000), pp. 330–332
    • 24
    • S. Paris Fdos, C.C. de Farias, G.B. Melo et al.
    • Postoperative subconjunctival corticosteroid injection to prevent pterygium recurrence
    • Cornea, 27 (2008), pp. 406–410
    • 31
    • J. Li, N. O’Reilly, H. Sheha et al.
    • Correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity to Bacillusproteins in patients with facial rosacea
    • Ophthalmology, 117 (2010), pp. 870–877
    •  | 

    • 33
    • A. Kheirkhah, V. Casas, W. Li et al.
    • Corneal manifestations of ocular Demodex infestation
    • Am J Ophthalmol, 143 (2007), pp. 743–749
    • 41
    • D.T. Jones, D. Monroy, S.C. Pflugfelder
    • A novel method of tear collection: comparison of glass capillary micropipettes with porous polyester rods
    • Cornea, 16 (1997), pp. 450–458
    •  | 

    • 43
    • D.Q. Li, S.B. Lee, Z. Gunja-Smith et al.
    • Overexpression of collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin (MMP-3) by cultured pterygium head fibroblasts
    • Arch Ophthalmol, 119 (2001), pp. 71–80
    •  | 

    • 44
    • A. Solomon, D.Q. Li, S.B. Lee, S.C. Tseng
    • Regulation of collagenase, stromelysin, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator in primary pterygium body fibroblasts by inflammatory cytokines
    • Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 41 (2000), pp. 2154–2163
    •  | 

    • 45
    • N. Di Girolamo, R.K. Kumar, M.T. Coroneo, D. Wakefield
    • UVB-mediated induction of interleukin-6 and -8 in pterygia and cultured human pterygium epithelial cells
    • Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 43 (2002), pp. 3430–3437
    •  | 

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