Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Dogs With Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Here are some other key points in the dogs that were treated.
1. The lowest quantity of MSCs (1 × 106) was used for treatment due to safety concerns of stem cell clumping in a small syringe or risk of emboli and for financial concerns.
2.. High dose of MSCs may be associated with cell clumping forming aggregates, especially when passed through a narrow needle, and these aggregates can cause pulmonary emboli or infarctions after the systemic application of MSCs34,35
3. Many injections of high doses of allogeneic MSCs affect alloreactive immune responses in recipient baboons36.
4. A previous study with dogs showed 3 eyes of 10 severe dog eyes did not have significant increase in Schirmer tear test values with transplantation of a high amount of allogeneic MSCs (1 × 108), which corresponds to two orders of magnitude higher than the dose we used in the present study20.
5. They show a big improvement but no total cure of severe Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca with 1 injection of MSC.
6. Authors believe multiple doses of MSCs could help these animals even further.
7. They note mild congestion may occur after multiple MSC intralacrimal injections, even at low cell doses (2 × 106) in normal dogs21.
Here are key comments on this article
1. This article raises concerns about intravenous injections of stem cells. They recommend lower concentrations to prevent stem cell clumping and pulmonary emboli.
While most stem cell injection protocols for dry eyes from meibomian gland dysfunction and lacrimal gland inflammation would not include intravenous injections, it is important to know all potential risks.
There is 1 report of a family of 3 who had signs & 1 had symptoms (42 yo male with chest pain) of a pulmonary emboli after intravenous stem cell injection. The only risk factor this patient had was that his father was a smoker and he had received autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cell therapy for cervical herniated intervertebral disc three times intravenously over 3 months and finished one month before his ER visit. His parents had similar treatments and were also found to have PE’s on lung scans WITHOUT any symptoms.
[My only issues and questions with th Jung paper are the following:
1. It was published in a very low impact journal.
2. These cases occurred in Korea likely in 2012 or 2013 when stem cell therapy was in its infancy for the treatments this family received.
3. Also: Authors write, “The suspicion of IV stem cell therapy as the cause of pulmonary embolism became more solidified when we came to know that his parents had taken the same therapy for treatment of knee osteoarthritis five times.”
Did the parents have the same issue and were treated exactly 5 times? Who was this doctor?
How much did they all pay for these injections?
What was the concentration of stem cells used?
Who paid for the CT scan when the parents had no symptoms?
How much did the patients weigh?
Was the 42yo a former smoker?
What was his job? Was it a desk job? Did he do any exercise? What was his diet like?
It is an early report of pulmonary emboli after stem cell injection. ]
Interestingly enough, stem cells have been used to treat conditions due to cell clumping or ischemia such as strokes: